2015;8(3):126-133. Find out more about precancerous conditions of the mouth. Until we do, we’ll be funding and conducting research, sharing expert information, supporting patients, and spreading the word about prevention. Research shows around 30 out of 100 (30%) of mouth and oropharyngeal cancers are caused by drinking alcohol. Studies have suggested the overall health of the mouth, teeth, and gums may impact oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk because of changes in the normal bacteria in the mouth. People who have a stem cell transplant may develop GVHD. If you […] 2017;9:124. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/betel_quid/index.htm on February 22, 2018. Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version. National Cancer Institute. We can even find you a free ride to treatment or a free place to stay when treatment is far from home. Risk Factors The use of tobacco and alcohol are the two most important risk factors for cancer of the mouth. If you want to take good care of your dental health by avoiding oral cancer’s risk factors, keep reading. Hence, it is important for the public and the clinicians to be completely aware of the risk factors for oral cancer and it is prudent for dentists to look carefully for early signs of oral cancer, while routine examination of the oral cavity especially in patients with history of known risk factors. Poor oral hygiene, which can lead to tooth loss, may also be linked to these cancers. The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to HPV has risen dramatically over the past few decades. Tobacco As many as 80 percent of patients with oral cancers use some type of tobacco product. Tobacco is the leading cause of cancer worldwide 4 and a well-established risk factor for oral SCC. April 2017. The more risk factors a person has, the greater his or her chance of developing oral cancer. Smoking is the single most important risk factor for oral cancer. (National Cancer Institute) Symptoms. If you drink, you are at risk for oral cancer. Tobacco is believed by many experts to be the most notable risk factor of oral cancer, and there seems to be a strong correlation between the use of tobacco in any form and cancer of the cheeks, gums, lips, head and neck. Imagine a world free from cancer. Available Every Minute of Every Day. Several studies have found that a diet low in fruits and vegetables is linked with an increased risk of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Some of the risk factors for oral cancer may also cause these precancerous conditions. Betel quid and areca nut contain cancer-causing substances. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/adult/lip-mouth-treatment-pdq on February 22, 2018. Some risk factors for oral cancer, such as being male or aging, are not preventable. American Cancer Society. What Causes Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. Continuing to smoke after treatment for oral cancer increases the risk of developing a second oral cancer. Learn more about these partnerships and how you too can join us in our mission to save lives, celebrate lives, and lead the fight for a world without cancer. Cancer is known to be potentially passed on from generation to generation. It’s estimated that approximately 51,540 people will be diagnosed with oral cancer and cancers of the throat, tonsils and back of the tongue in 2018. Some studies found that people who drink very hot beverages may have a higher risk for oral cancer. Cancer is undeniably a serious disease, with over one hundred variations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cancer Stat Facts: Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer. The truth is that tens of thousands of Americans get oral cancer every year. Smoking or using tobacco products increases the risk of oral cancer, especially if combined with high alcohol consumption. Boscolo-Rizzo P, Furlan C, Lupato V, Polesel J, Fratta E. Novel insights into epigenetic drivers of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: role of HPV and lifestyle factors. In Southeast Asia, South Asia, and certain other areas of the world, many people chew betel quid, which is made up of areca nut (betel nut), spices, lime, and other ingredients. The risk of these cancers is even higher in people who both smoke and drink alcohol, with the highest risk in heavy smokers and drinkers. common in men than in women. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature. Or write us. While oral cancer can affect anyone, there are several risk factors that increase the likelihood of its development. Continuing to smoke greatly increases their risk of developing a second cancer in the mouth, throat, larynx (voice box), or lung. The longer you use tobacco and the more you use, the greater your risk. CCS adapting to COVID-19 realities to support Canadians during and after the pandemic. One of the types of cancers that many family caregivers worry about is oral cancer. Top 5 Risk Factors for Oral Cancer You know your dentist is looking for cavities during regular check-ups, but you may not realize your dentist can check for cancer at the same time. Alcohol is one of the main risk factors for oral cancer. People with certain syndromes caused by inherited defects (mutations) in certain genes have a very high risk of mouth and throat cancer. Using smokeless tobacco products is linked with cancer of the gums and inner lining of the cheeks and lips because the tobacco regularly touches these areas. Substances like carotenoids, which are common in vegetables and fruit, are linked with a lower risk of oral cancer. Shah A, Malik A, Garg A, et al. Betel quid and tobacco are often chewed together, or betel quid may contain tobacco. People who are over the age of 60 have the highest incidence of oral cancer. Cancer risk factors include exposure to chemicals or other substances, as well as certain behaviors. Precancerous conditions of the mouth include leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Most cases of oral cancer occurred in patients over the age of 60, though you are considered at greater risk when you reach age 55. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are more common in people who have a weak immune system. About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer, Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks, Common Questions About the COVID-19 Outbreak, Risk Factors for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes increases the risk for oral cancer. The higher risk may be due to taking drugs that suppress your immune system. Sun exposure increases the risk of developing lip cancer. This might be because men have been more likely to use tobacco and alcohol in the past. Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic condition that affects the bone marrow so it can’t make enough red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. People who have had oral cancer have a higher risk of developing another oral cancer, especially if they continue to use tobacco or alcohol. What patients and caregivers need to know about cancer, coronavirus, and COVID-19. How common is oral cancer in nonsmokers. Oral Cavity (Mouth) and Oropharyngeal (Throat) Cancer, inherited defects (mutations) in certain genes. Presented in partnership with Desjardins. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity in the United States. Whether you want to learn about treatment options, get advice on coping with side effects, or have questions about health insurance, we’re here to help. Having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that a person will get the disease. Find out more about graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Tobacco is, probably, the most common risk factor for OC. All so you can live longer — and better. with no history of alcohol abuse or tobacco use than they were in the past. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that sometimes occurs after a stem cell transplant. The reason for the rising rate of HPV-linked cancers is unclear, although some think that it could be because of changes in sexual practices in recent decades, Whether you or someone you love has cancer, knowing what to expect can help you cope. Smokers are many times more likely than non-smokers to develop these cancers. Even if someone does have risk factors, it's impossible to know for sure how much they contributed to causing the cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 150 types of viruses. © 2021 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. Some people who have oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer have few or no known risk factors, and others who have risk factors never develop the disease. They're called papillomaviruses because some of them cause a type of growth called a papilloma. The following factors have been linked with oral cancer, but there is not enough evidence to show they are known risk factors. Some studies show that second-hand smoke may also increase the risk for oral cancer. There are many risk factors linked to developing oral cancer. The risk of developing oral cancer increases with age and is greatest after 45 years of age. Patients may experience symptoms at an early age and may develop anemia or aplastic anemia. Genetic syndromes: Some inherited genetic mutations, which cause different syndromes in the body, carry a high risk of oral cancer. The risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancer is greatly increased by 2 factors: Tobacco use. National Cancer Institute. A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. Alcohol According to the American Cancer Society, 7 of 10 oral cancer patients are heavy drinkers. Many people in these areas also chew gutka, a mixture of betel quid and tobacco. Smoking. Pipe smokers also have a higher risk of developing cancer in their lips. An inherited, or genetic, condition is passed from parents to their children through genes. A few studies found that having dentures that don’t fit properly can increase the risk for oral cancer. Pipe smoking is linked to a very high risk for cancer in the part of the lips that touch the pipe stem. The risk of oral cancer among people with Fanconi anemia is up to 500 times higher than the general population. National Cancer Institute. Asian ancestry, particularly Chinese ancestry, is a risk factor for nasopharyngeal cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Another risk factor is excessive exposure to the sun, especially from a young age. Increasing the educational knowledge of the risk factors amongst the Southeast Asian population regarding the causes of oral cancer would prevent a reduction of the number of oral cancer cases. The habit is a very common one, especially on the Indian Sub-continent and Southeast Asia where it is responsible for 40% of oral cancers. Tobacco use of any kind, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco and snuff, among others 2. Poorly fitting dentures can tend to trap agents that have been proven to cause oral cancer, such as alcohol and tobacco particles, so denture wearers should have them checked by a dentist regularly to ensure a good fit. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Many types of HPV are spread through sexual contact, including oral sex. The risk for oral cancer greatly increases when smoking is combined with using smokeless tobacco, drinking alcohol or both. January 29, 2018. > References : 1. Farquhar DR, Divaris K, Mazul AL, et al. Factors that can increase your risk of mouth cancer include: 1. For this reason, it’s important to know your risk factors and to take action on those that can be modified. Oral Oncol. A family history of certain cancers can be a sign of a possible inherited cancer syndrome. It is often combined with tobacco and chewed for very long periods and this habit can start in childhood. Our team of expert journalists brings you all angles of the cancer story – from breaking news and survivor stories to in-depth insights into cutting-edge research. Clin Epigenetics. Börnigen D, Ren B, Pickard R, et al. The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team. If we are not able to reach you by phone, we will leave a voicemail message. Having cancer of the esophagus, larynx, lung or cervix also increases your risk of oral cancer. Subsequently, most dentists encourage patients who smoke to try and defeat the ugly habit. One of the most important precautions that you can take for oral cancer is opting for regular oral cancer screening with your dentist, at least twice in a year. Previous studies have shown that performing oral sex is a strong risk factor for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. A weak immune system can be caused by certain diseases present at birth, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and certain medicines (such as those given after organ transplants). Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2018. Some people chew areca nut by itself. Oral cancer is a severe disease, which can cause serious complications like death. Tobacco smoke from cigarettes, cigars, or pipes can cause cancers anywhere in the mouth or throat. Chewing betel quid or areca nut is common in South Asia and among some South-Asian immigrants in Canada. They can also infect the mouth and throat. These products are often linked with cancer of the lip if they sit on the lips. Apart from these factors, there are other various etiological factors that cause oral cancer. GVHD is when the healthy transplanted stem cells see the body as foreign and start to destroy the body’s cells, including cells in the mouth. There is a higher risk of developing SCC in the head and neck region (including the mouth) if a first-degree family member (parent, sibling or child) has been diagnosed with SCC of the head and neck. Some factors influence risk more than others. Most people with HPV infections of the mouth and throat have no symptoms, and only a very small percentage develop oropharyngeal cancer. Approximately 70% of patients with oral cancer are heavy drinkers. HPV is a group of more than 100 different types of related viruses. And research has shown that these cancers are becoming more common in younger people Cancers of the lip are more common in people who have outdoor jobs where they are exposed to sunlight for long periods of time. More men than women develop oral cancer, and it occurs more often in men of African descent. People who chew betel quid or areca nut have a higher risk of developing oral cancer, especially in the inner lining of the cheeks and lips. Cancer is one of the biggest concerns for the elderly amongst family caregivers. But in most cases, it is impossible to rank them with absolute certainty. Overall survival may also be affected. More research is needed, but regular dental visits, as well as brushing and flossing, may lessen these risks and have many other health benefits, too. These include: 1. People with the following inherited conditions have a higher risk of developing precancerous changes in the mouth and oral cancer. Sunlight is the main source of UV light for most people. Infection with certain types of HPV can cause some forms of cancer, including cancers of the penis, cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, mouth, and throat. Most often it affects the skin (usually as an itchy rash), but it sometimes affects the lining of the mouth and throat, appearing as small white lines or spots. Study shows that it is possible to develop oral cancer even without smoking and drinking. What does it take to outsmart cancer? Please call us for help quitting tobacco or see How to Quit Smoking or Smokeless Tobacco for more information. Tax ID Number: 13-1788491. It is interesting to note that even smokeless tobacco can lead to cancer of the cheeks, gums, and lips. The hot beverage may cause damage to the cells in the mouth, which may develop into a cancer. Oral sex and risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Your immune system can be weakened after an organ transplant or treatment for an immune system disease. Oral cancer can occur at any age, but people over the age of 45 are at higher risk. HPV is likely the cause of oral cancer that is not linked with tobacco or alcohol use. Infection with HPV-16 increases the risk of oral cancer. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of the Leo and Gloria Rosen family. Thus, it’s important to avoid risk factors to prevent oral cancer altogether. They can infect the sexual organs (the penis in men or the vulva, vagina and cervix in women), the rectum and the anus. GVHD can affect many tissues of the body, including those in the mouth. 1 The two main factors which influence cancer are genetic and epigenetic. It's also important for people who have been treated for oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer to give up all oral tobacco products. Infection with HPV-18 may also increase the risk. But recent research has questioned these results. A risk factor for developing oral cancer is the use of smoking tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, and/or pipes. Using oral tobacco products for a long time is linked to a very high risk. January 12, 2018. Excessive sun exposure to your lips 4. Papillomas are not cancers, and are more commonly called warts. Cancer Facts & Figures 2018. Become a volunteer, make a tax-deductible donation, or participate in a fundraising event to help us save lives. Lichen planus is a chronic condition that forms a rash or sores on the skin and inside the mouth, usually on the tongue, gums and lining of the cheeks. It isn’t known whether or not the following factors are linked with oral cancer. See HPV (human papillomavirus) to learn more about HPV and HPV prevention. Tobacco and alcohol use are 2 of the strongest risk factors for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Most lip cancers occur on the bottom lip, likely because it’s more exposed to the sun. At the American Cancer Society, we’re on a mission to free the world from cancer. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx usually take many years to develop, so they're not common in young people. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. It may be that researchers can’t show a definite link or that studies have had different results. Whether you smoke it or chew it, tobacco use dramatically increases your risk of getting oral cancer. American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. All forms of tobacco increase the risk for this cancer, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis and smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco and snuff). The risk is especially high for people with heavy alcohol and tobacco use. Chewing betel, paan and areca is a major risk factor in developing oral cancer. We couldn’t do what we do without our volunteers and donors. Our doctors provide the answer. Smoking is a risk factor for many cancers. These products also cause gum disease, destruction of the bone sockets around teeth, and tooth loss. The American Cancer Society couldn’t do what we do without the support of our partners. Do you know the risk factors for oral cancer? Oral contraceptives that contain both estrogen and progesterone can slightly increase the risk for breast cancer, especially among women who have used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years. The worst part about oral cancer, just like most other forms of cancer, is the fact that you don’t get to spot the symptoms until it’s too late. Some studies have suggested that mouthwash with a high alcohol content might be linked to a higher risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Betel quid, or paan, is areca nut (the seed from the fruit of the oriental palm) and lime wrapped in a betel leaf. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Sometimes the sores can develop into ulcers. Fair-skinned people also have a greater risk of developing lip cancer. Smoking and drinking together further increases the risk of cancer more than either by itself. Epstein-Barr virus is a risk factor for nasopharyngeal cancer and cancer of the salivary glands. Research. 2. This includes smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, as well as chewing tobacco… © 2021 Canadian Cancer Society All rights reserved. A severe case may slightly increase the risk of oral cancer. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):17686. A risk factor is anything that changes a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. The higher risk disappears after the woman stops taking oral contraceptives. However, some lifestyle factors that can reduce the risk of oral cancer … Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. What steps can you take to lessen your chances to developing oral cancer? People with a weakened immune system have a higher risk of developing oral cancer, especially lip cancer. Oral and oropharyngeal cancers are twice as Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version. About 7 out of 10 patients with oral cancer are heavy drinkers. Tobacco and alcohol are the most important risk factors for oral cancer. Individuals who smoke pipes or cigars experience a risk for oral cancer similar to that of the cigarette smoker. Others may be related to personal choices such as smoking, drinking, or diet. More research is needed to clarify the role of these factors for oral cancer. Oral tobacco products (snuff, dip, spit, chew, or dissolvable tobacco) are linked with cancers of the cheek, gums, and inner surface of the lips. Alcohol . People who chew betel quid or gutka have an increased risk of cancer of the mouth. Damage to cells in the mouth from GVHD increases the risk of developing oral cancer. The type linked to throat cancer (including cancer of the oropharynx) is HPV16. They may not go to the dentist very often to take care of their mouth. There are different kinds of risk factors. Studies show that people with poor oral health have a higher risk of developing oral cancer. HPV DNA (a sign of HPV infection) is found in about 2 out of 3 oropharyngeal cancers and in a much smaller fraction of oral cavity cancers. in particular an increase in oral sex. They aren’t cancer, but they can sometimes become oral cancer if they aren’t treated. However, in the last decade an increase was observed in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. Most oral cancers are linked to tobacco use. Most patients with these cancers are older than 55 when the cancers are first found. Smokeless Tobacco (Snuff and Chewing Tobacco) Heavy alcohol use 3. Some, such as your age or race, can’t be changed. But many studies have found no increased risk in denture wearers overall. 2017;73:111-117. We will reply by email or phone if you leave us your details. This is also a risk factor. Risk factors for developing oral cancer One of the biggest risk factors for oral cancer is tobacco use. Risk Factors for Oral Cancer By Dorothy Anderson | January 8, 2021 | Comments Off on Risk Factors for Oral Cancer. SCC is the most common type of oral cancer. More research is needed to see if the following are risk factors for oral cancer: To make the decisions that are right for you, ask your healthcare team questions about risks. Jobs where they are known risk factors may increase the risk factors to prevent cancer. Hpv infection, which may develop into a cancerous tumour no symptoms and. Can, too ( including cancer of the biggest risk factors linked to throat.... Rank them with absolute certainty for cancer of the strongest risk factors oral. Thoroughly every day factors have been treated for oral cancer are genetic and epigenetic 7 of 10 patients oral. Someone you love has cancer, especially if combined with using smokeless tobacco for more information mission free... 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